a region of low rainfall in africa
Overall, the results suggest that the rainfall gradient across the province is weakening, at least in spring. Mount Kilimanjaro, the tallest peak in Africa as well as Mt. Clim Res 25:29–41, Pienaar L, Boonzaaier J (2018) Drought policy brief Western Cape Agriculture. Note that it is possible that topographic effects or other local forcing may lead to the differences between the time series. reassess the teleconnection between ENSO and rainfall for the winter rainfall region of South Africa. Low-lying plains mostly constitute the terrain of West Africa. The authors thank the South African Weather Service (SAWS) for providing rainfall data and Pierre Kloppers (CSAG, UCT) for assistance with data quality control. Over the landmass, a stronger (weaker) Botswana High is also apparent with increased (decreased) subsidence over and near the Eastern Cape which is less (more) favourable for cloud band development and hence reduced (enhanced) rainfall during dry (wet) springs. It is also the second most voluminous river in the world after Amazon River. Geophys Res Lett 31:L23212. The probability of the trend occurring was measured at a 5% significance level. Africa. Other important rainfall producing systems for the region are mesoscale convective complexes (Blamey and Reason 2009, 2013), cut-off lows (CoLs) (Singleton and Reason 2006, 2007a) and ridging anticyclones (Weldon and Reason 2014; Engelbrecht et al. We also acknowledge the World Climate Research Programme’s Working Group on Coupled Modelling responsible for CMIP5 model data, which was provided by the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI; https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/). J Clim 16:4134–4143, Mason S (1995) Sea-surface temperature—South African rainfall associations 1910–1989. In general, most of the models are too wet so that the multi-model mean (black dashed line), although showing February as the wettest month (but no secondary peak in November), indicates up to 2 mm day−1 more rainfall than CMAP or GPCP on average. Nature 401(6751):360–363, Singleton AT, Reason CJC (2006) Numerical Simulations of a Severe Rainfall Event over the Eastern Cape coast of South Africa: sensitivity to sea surface temperature and topography. Drought in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa and trends in rainfall characteristics, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0731.s1, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-020-05413-0. The remaining springs are all dry to very dry except for 2005 (− 0.01) with the recent springs of 2016 and 2018 showing anomalies of − 1.11 and − 0.84, respectively. Elsewhere, part of the dam catchment areas for the largest city of Port Elizabeth also show significantly decreasing trends. a The mean austral spring and summer (September–February) rainfall (shaded; mm) across southern Africa based on CHIRPS data from 1981 to 2018. b A zoomed in version of the mean spring and summer rainfall for the southeast region of the domain. Influence of low frequency global Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) modes on decadal rainfall modes over Eastern Africa region is investigated. Given that the decrease is much stronger in the wetter eastern half of the province, the results imply that the rainfall gradient across the province (Fig. The latter show a weak bimodal cycle with November and February as the wettest months; however, the bimodal aspects in the dry season are not obvious since May, June and July are all very similar and then the average rainfall starts increasing from August. (2020) found that there are large variations in the modelled average locations and frequencies of these weather systems between the models even though all models correctly simulate the large scale generation and evolution of the cloud bands. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027721, Hansingo K, Reason CJC (2009) Modelling the atmospheric response over southern Africa to SST forcing in the southeast tropical Atlantic and southwest subtropical Indian Oceans. However, given the strong land and ocean surface gradients in the region and its sensitivity to both tropical and midlatitude circulation, it is not surprising that the models should show a spread in projections over the Eastern Cape and have difficulties in accurately representing its climate. Season is associated with the East and northeast of the region must to. Both politically and economically rainfall to each region the physical science basis ) Subtropical Indian Ocean Dipole! 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