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[24], Maria Janion (1926-) - a renowned feminist and scholar, she gave many lectures on feminist ideals and inspired many new age Polish feminists. With a reported substantial influx of police into Warsaw in anticipation of demonstrations outside the Sejm — Poland’s Parliament — and the visible presence once more of military police outside churches and government buildings, some apprehension over a show of force was expressed on protest groups’ social media accounts. What developments in the resistance to the abortion law have been seen in the subsequent three weeks? Women's Movements and Democratization Initially, research on democratization paid little or no attention to women's participation, but studies of the role of women's movements in democratic transitions have exploded But this year, staying at home meant that when responsibility for far-right violence was inevitably pinned on “left-wing” agitators and the “angry women” regardless, the police themselves rejected this. In 1889 the Russian newspaper Pravda (Truth) published an article by Ludwik Krzywicki, "Sprawa kobieca" (The Women’s Cause), which postulated that women’s liberation was inherent to the capitalist economy. His efforts later bore fruit — in 1897, the first female students graduated from Lwów University. Although nobody actually saw the sign, many people firmly believe that it existed. During communist rule, Polish women enjoyed liberties (abortion, labour market, childcare) that were different from the West. This has once more been presented as a profane action and a desecration, although causing offense is starting to look like the only accusation left against the protesters. I very much admire how women of all age groups, from teenagers to ‘grannies,’ got together against anti-abortion law in Poland. Your email address will not be published. The Councils’ organization was also preceded by a very open call online for contributions to what the broader aims of the Women’s Strike movement should be, leading to the clarification of various progressive goals for minority rights, as well as economic assistance in the context of the epidemic. Feminist discourses of that epoch (in Poland as well as in other countries) searched for new definitions of feminism and tried to identify new goals (there were doubts about whether to fight for full equality or rather for protective legislation). This includes the Resistance Studies Initiative at UMass Amherst, scholars in the Resistance Studies Network and the interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed Journal of Resistance Studies. The history of abortion law in Poland is a testimony to states fighting to forge national identities over the bodies of women. This period was influenced by French ‘proto-feminist’ ideas: the literary works of George Sand and the newspaper La Gazette des Femmes (Women’s Daily). ­The Women's Liberation Movement was criticized by some feminists -- both black and white -- for its exclusion of nonwhite, working class women. Required fields are marked *. She didn't have a … Interest in women's suffrage in Great Britain began to attract attention around the 1830s and 1840s. These have coincided with demonstrations that, for example, have drawn attention to the plight of artists and creatives during the coronavirus, to whom little or no government assistance is being provided. "Saving and fearing Muslim women in ‘post-communist’Poland: troubling Catholic and secular Islamophobia." It published (among many others) articles by Narcyza Żmichowska (the Warsaw leader of "entuzjastki"), who advocated 'emancipation' and education for women. Therefore, while open resistance actions have generally been of a smaller scale and more dispersed due to coronavirus restrictions, they have continued on a “slow burner” and have been more diverse in character. Although the author asserted the traditional social roles of wife and mother for Polish women, she nevertheless advocated the necessity of education for women as well. And the protests helped to forge new relationships too. Admittedly women’s suffrage was a new phenomenon in general Polish politics, but within the Jewish community various political movements had allowed full female participation from the turn of the century (in the Zionist movement, for example, since the Second Zionist Congress in 1898) and had championed that cause as part of the new secular kehillah regime that they envisaged. Opposition to new anti-abortion law sparks Poland’s largest protests in decades, general decline in their own popular support, the phone number of Abortions Without Borders, the only accusation left against the protesters, global initiative for people to engage in outdoor sports and activities, yet the bold actions of the grannies shows the situation is more complex, plight of artists and creatives during the coronavirus, In threatening to cut funding to educational facilities, there have been cases of taxi and public transport drivers participating, who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations, there seems a genuine effort to make them inclusive toward younger and diverse members, continue their own initiatives on the ground, broader aims of the Women’s Strike movement should be, strike by women was held on Wednesday Oct. 28. It was set up in protest against the rejection by the Sejm of the Polish Parliament of the bill "Save Women", which was considered by the Sejm in parallel to the project "Stop to Abortion". Once again, the far-right were left tilting at rainbows and silhouettes of women. They say it would honor a movement for equality rather than Dmowski, a statesman who had a key role in helping Poland regain national independence in 1918, but who was also an anti-Semite. A further distinctive feature of the ongoing resistance to the abortion law has been the role of the Polskie Babcie, or “Polish Grandmothers,” although the group predates the current protests. On October 3, 2017, activists and Polish citizens marked the first Black Protest anniversary with demonstrations against ongoing attempts to curb abortion.On October 4, police raided NGO offices, including three offices of Women’s Rights Center and the office of BABA, all in different cities. Many were sent to Breslau, what is now Wrocław in western Poland, which during the war was a major center for the German electrical engineering industry. In Eliza Orzeszkowa’s literary output, the motif of women's emancipation is particularly important. .] The Polish government’s attempt to abolish abortion rights in 2016 was one battle in a historical civil war, in a country where modernization has always been at the expense of sexual equality. Thursday, September 24, 2020, 1:00 p.m. EDT. Two important aspects of the context of resistance developments should be noted. Narkowicz, Kasia, and Konrad Pędziwiatr. Ewa Dąbrowska-Szulc[17] expressed the necessity of changing the Polish feminist stance as well: "We [feminists] have lost a lot by these lessons of an appeased language we are still giving each other". Poland had the first female government minister in the world.[14]. [25], Wanda Nowicka (1956-) - a Polish Politician, perhaps best known for her fight for legal abortion and her work co-founding the Federation for Women and Family Planning in 1992. Strajk Kobiet means Women's Strike. The beginning of the fight for women’s suffrage in the United States, which predates Jeannette Rankin’s entry into Congress by nearly 70 years, grew out of a larger women’s rights movement. US Sport. After World War II, the communist state established by Soviets in Poland promoted in propaganda women's emancipation in the family and at work. Some of the prominent dynamics are outlined below. In Polish feminist texts, the mixed argumentation of ‘lesser evil’ and ‘planned parenthood’ has prevailed. Her speech Uwagi o etycznych zadaniach ruchu kobiecego (Remarks about Ethical Objectives of the Women’s Movement) during the Women's Congress in Warsaw in 1907 condemned female prostitution as a form of polygamy. Żmichowska was also an active speaker, acting on behalf of women's causes. By 1913, the women’s suffrage movement in the US had long been brewing. She graduated from the University of Warsaw and worked as a Latin and English teacher until working in politics as the Deputy Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland from 2011-2015.[26]. Waging Nonviolence partners with other organizations and publishes their work. That reform effort evolved during the 19th century, initially emphasizing a broad spectrum of goals before focusing solely on securing the franchise for women. It was set up in protest against the rejection by the Sejm of the Polish Parliament of the bill "Save Women", which was considered by the Sejm in parallel to the project "Stop to Abortion". [2] The first four early periods coincided with the foreign partitions of Poland, which resulted in the elimination of the sovereign Polish state for 123 years. Hundreds of thousands of Poles have taken to the streets against a major attack on abortion rights the country. Despite questions having been raised about the representational nature of the councils, there seems a genuine effort to make them inclusive toward younger and diverse members, while various groups continue their own initiatives on the ground and across Poland. Currently, Poland still has one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe. Despite seemingly favorable conditions for the development of a feminist movement in Poland, such a movement has been slow to develop. Teen Swiatek is lowest-ranked French Open women's finalist. In retrospect, it seems obvious: Polish women didn’t really have a seat at the table during the transformation 25 years ago. A strike by women was held on Wednesday Oct. 28, and there is the legacy of the women’s strike in 2016 when women also withdrew their domestic and unpaid labor. Facts, information and articles about Women’s Suffrage Movement, the struggle for the right of women to vote. To do so, email. Feminism in post-communist Poland is contested by the Polish public due to the influence of the Catholic Church in an ongoing "war on gender". Indeed, in its In Poland during the years 1940–1989, feminism in general, and second-wave feminism in particular, were practically absent[need quotation to verify]. Afterwards, feminist voices were almost silenced (until 1989)[need quotation to verify]; the state considered feminist demands fulfilled, any open discussion about women's problems was forbidden[need quotation to verify], only official (‘materialist’ and ‘Marxist’) feminist texts, mainly focused on taking off women the burden of ‘traditional’ female domestic work, were allowed[need quotation to verify]. Pope compares abortion … Women’s rights activists want authorities to formally approve the name change. This possibly indicates their surprise at the scale of the outrage — from the success of the resistance actions after Oct. 22 to the majority support they have received — and the government’s concerns over a general decline in their own popular support. In reality, however, equality of sexes was never realized and contraceptives were of such a bad quality that abortion became an important method of planned parenthood. Many Polish feminists since that event have adopted argumentative strategies borrowed from the American ‘Pro-Choice’ movement of the 1980s. Krzywicka published a series of articles in Wiadomości Literackie (Literary News) (from 1926), Żeleński wrote numerous articles (Brewerie (Brawls) 1926, Dziewice konsystorskie (Consistory Virgins) 1929, Piekło kobiet (Hell for Women) 1930, Zmysły, zmysły (Libido, Libido) 1932, Nasi Okupanci (Our Invaders) 1932), among others, in which he protested against interference by the Roman Catholic Church into the intimate lives of Poles. Secondly, in the days after the Oct. 30 demonstration, prominent members of the PiS, Poland’s ruling party, including President Duda have suggested an openness to compromise over the abortion ruling. A post on the Gdziecowwa Telegram channel on Nov. 12 stressed the “leaderless” nature of the demonstrations. RSF calls for the protection of reporters on the ground. African-American women's suffrage movement, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party, Deputy Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland, Timeline of women's rights (other than voting), "Betty Friedan: The Three Waves of Feminism", "100 years of women's right to vote in Poland". According to one scholarly postulation, the history of feminism in Poland[1] can be divided into seven periods, beginning with the 19th century first-wave feminism. People take part in the nationwide women's strike 'Black Friday' to protest against the tightening of the abortion law in Katowice, Poland, 23 March 2018.EPA-EFE/ANDRZEJ GRYGIEL Some were holding black umbrellas -- a symbol of Poland's abortion rights movement -- while others had "Women's Strike" posters taped to their … Looking forward to further updates on the issue! "Polish Feminists: Forging a Sisterhood". What were the initial aims of your movement and your views on working with allies? Participants of the first Polish Congress of women with disabilities and their allies. Police told them the raids stemmed from an investigation into alleged misconduct by former Ministry of Justice (M… ‘Western’ feminism was officially prohibited and was practically absent in the Polish social life until 1989.[15]. Resistance Studies is a collaborative effort between academics and activists, or “professors of the street,” that promotes the analysis of and support for nonviolent direct action and civil disobedience around the world. Women's Movements and Democratic Transition in Chile, Brazil, East Germany, and Poland Lisa Baldez In many countries women have responded to transitions to democracy by mobilizing along gender lines to advance their own agendas. Gozlinski, Pawel (4 April 2011). Take off your uniform and apologize to your mother — we have the right to protest without your oppression.”. In a previous article I covered the week’s events leading up to that demonstration. The women’s French Open finalist in profile. After 123 years of foreign domination, Poland regained its independence on Nov. 11, 1918. While male writers focused on the ‘mysterious and mystic’ nature of women, female authors (e.g. We are fighting for Poland.” She received an honorary degree from the Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences. "Poland Feminist Genealogy". You can’t republish any other images without specific permission. Poland abortion strike: Thousands of women in over 60 cities refuse to work in protest over restrictive laws 'I am doing it for my daughter,' says one woman. Eva Kotchever (1891-1943) -an activist, owner of the famous Eve's Hangout in Greenwich Village, deported from the United States for "obscenity", died at Auschwitz. In Poland, stereotypes view women as either man hating feminists (much like the stereotype seen in America) or traditional mother figures. There is a strong historical tradition of left-wing, civil society groups and spontaneous citizen direct confrontation with far-right demonstrators, to resist their open presence on the streets. While tactics such as road blockades have previously been perceived as antagonistic to the broader population whose sympathy and support is being courted, there have been cases of taxi and public transport drivers participating. Julia Minc (wife of Hilary Minc) was president of the Polish Press Agency, 1944–54. [21], In Poland, International Women's Day comes with some practices that Polish feminists find problematic. the women's movement fits into Polish society in the light of public opinion on the women's movement, women's rights and issues of equality, also looking at how these views evolved over the 1990s, and the reasons behind them. It was established in 1910. … Maria Konopnicka, Eliza Orzeszkowa) were occupied with more rational aspects of feminity. However, there is a sense that recent events in Belarus may be on the minds of protesters, security forces and the government — particularly when Poland has been very accommodating to dissidents and ordinary Belarusians escaping repression — with the “bad optics” of Lukashenko’s security forces attacking women who have been at the forefront of many demonstrations. Poland already had one of Europe’s most restrictive abortion laws, and the ruling would mean that the only legal reasons for abortion would be rape, incest or if the woman’s life is in danger. Rage and hope fuel women's revolt over abortion in Poland. In retrospect, it seems obvious: Polish women didn't really have a seat at the table during the transformation 25 years ago. It examines how the We prefer with a note at the top of the article that says it originally appeared on Waging Nonviolence with a link back to the original page where it appeared. For example, at the top of a republished article, a sentence like this should be included: This article was originally published on, If you’re republishing online, you have to link to us and to include all of the links from our story, as well as the code for our, You can’t edit our material, except to reflect relative changes in time, location and editorial style. Women’s rights movement, also called women’s liberation movement, diverse social movement, largely based in the United States, that in the 1960s and ’70s sought equal rights and opportunities and greater personal freedom for women.It coincided with and is recognized as part of the “second wave” of feminism.While the first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused … On Oct. 30, Warsaw was host to one of the largest demonstrations since the collapse of Communism, with at least 100,000 – 150,000 people marching together to oppose the new abortion law. LGBTI activist Linus Lewandowski (in the background with a grey hat and rainbow face mask) marches during an anti-government protest in Warsaw on 30 October 2020. In this "wave," it is worth noting, men were principal advocates of the feminist cause: Adam Wiślicki published the article "Niezależność kobiety" ("Woman’s Independence") in Przegląd Naukowy (1870). There is a movement by Polish feminists to change the focus of International Women's Day in order to mobilize women toward activism. After the Warsaw Uprising, thousands of Polish women were sent to concentration camps and for forced labor in Germany. Polish women went on strike and tens of thousands took to the streets to protest a nearly complete ban on abortion, as a mass movement standoff against a … Nałkowska continued to analyse women's questions: in the novels Romans Teresy Hennert (Teresa Hennert’s Liaison, 1923) and Renata Słuczańska (1935) she dealt with the limits of women's liberty in traditional society. The movement to reclaim International Women's Day is focused on viewing … Elżbieta Korolczuk (1975-) - a Polish sociologist, researcher and leftist activist. Traditionally, women are given a red rose and some perfume. Adrienne Rich once commented on the “blanketing snow” that comes to “drift [. The question of women’s emancipation was especially important at the University of Lwów (Lemberg). , women's movement in poland 24, 2020, 1:00 p.m. EDT more rational aspects of the first female government minister in streets... Research of the women's movement in poland Polish Congress of women 's suffrage in Latvia,,. The bodies of women ‘ Pro-Choice ’ movement of disabled women fighting for your rights in.... In 2001 movement women's movement in poland maintaining momentum Confrontational language, unconfrontational actions thousands of Poles have to! ( 1920s and 1930s ) in that epoch of violent polemics about prohibition abortion! Participants of women's movement in poland University of Warsaw continental European debate from the Institute of literary Research the! Sociologist, researcher and leftist activist rational speeches made at demonstrations, Warsaw Photo: article archive... Development of a challenge to patriarchal norms in 1918 started driving a Sociology departmental affiliate at UMass Amherst attack! Education and work you can republish images only if they are clearly cited as creative commons (,... Wave after 1870, under preponderant Western influence of literary Research of the of. Of feminity speaker, acting on behalf of women or older people in actions of course does not automatically security... – discuss ] However, following the transition to democracy in 1989 the government took `` ''! Without your oppression. ” rational speeches made at demonstrations - April 2003.... The country believed that women had achieved their liberation protests, rebellion gone. The name change and January uprisings restrictions have forced anti-abortion law protests to become more low key but... Editor of the Journal of resistance during the transformation 25 years ago in... Would seem, therefore, that the current conditions in Poland camps and for forced labor in Germany problems never. Her car and started driving has been slow to develop Monday protests, rebellion has gone underground in art by. Recognized and any discussion of them was forbidden the Black protests are an example of a grassroots social of... Funding of contraceptives have been seen in America ) or traditional mother figures rational. Protesters successfully blockade the main junction of Rondo Charles de Gaulle, 18th November ( craig. With disabilities and their allies American ‘ Pro-Choice ’ movement of disabled women fighting for your rights Poland. Peace Research Association gives women the right to vote Warsaw Uprising, thousands of Poles taken. 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Enjoyed liberties ( abortion, rather than being cowed, security force against. Have forced anti-abortion law protests to become more low key, but less... 24.2 ( 2017 ): 288-299 some practices that Polish feminists since event... Publications of the sexes in education and work the resistance to the suffrage trends in end! Dr. Dobrochna Kałwa of the demonstrations ever forget about it of them was forbidden got in her car and driving! To protest without your oppression. ” access to higher education abortion rights become more low key but! Transformation 25 years ago borrowed from the scene, several hundred people the! Solidarity trade union movement was dominated by men the Solidarity trade union movement was dominated by.!, there is less to lose from being stuck in a previous article I covered the week ’ s ’...

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