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the origins of iron metallurgy in africa

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In North Africa, metallurgy was introduced by Phoenicians around 800 bce. In 1989, an analysis of the iron plate was made by El Sayed El Gayar and M.P. 75-83). 16. The Egyptian Knowledge of Metallurgy and Metalworking. •It is also a significant global producer of many mined commodities. Because iron ore is the key ingredient of steel, and nearly 95% of the metal used every year around the world is steel – iron is the most frequently used metal in the world. There is an "upcoming publication" in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia dealing with the origins of metallurgy on the African continent, particularly the older dates we have below the Sahara. Undoubtedly iron was already used in Nubia, the Sudan, and Libya in the sixth century B.C. By the second century B.C. . •The role of metallurgy in the mining value chain will be examined in terms of what is practised currently and the potential to expand. These include steam engines, metal chisels and saws, copper and iron tools and weapons, nails, glue, carbon steel and bronze weapons and art (2, 7). 4 However, West, central, and East Africa present a picture that contrasts with that of Egypt and North Africa. 5 •South Africa possesses the world’s largest mineral resources by value. Former mines for Iron extraction between the 9th and the 15th Century at Dogbo(Benin). 23 No. They were directly ancestral to the Bantu-speaking peoples who form the majority of South Africa’s population today. African Iron Age people used a bloomery process to smelt iron. Mining Iron Ore in Africa. Iron extraction and Techniques for Iron Smelting in Bandjeli (Togo). The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. If you are looking to explore the history of pre-colonial Africa, this lesson is a good starting point. The Iron Age was a period in human history that started between 1200 B.C. Indigenous metallurgy with respect to iron and steel in East Africa.. 17. Iron was used in West Africa for tools and for weapons. Over the past half-century, the interpretations and reconstructions of the origins of iron smelting in sub-Saharan Africa have changed considerably. Ancient Origins articles related to metallurgy in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. 18. Chronometric and chronological data on metallurgy at Termit: Graphs for the study of the ancient iron ages. In the period from 1400 to 1600, iron technology appears to have been one of a series of fundamental social assets that facilitated the growth of significant centralized kingdoms in the western Sudan and along the Guinea coast of West Africa. Iron in Africa: Revising the history of metallurgy - There is a true iron culture in Africa. Google Scholar the Iron Age had reached the central regions of Africa. The smelting of iron in bloomeries began in the 12th century BC in India, Anatolia or the Caucasus. (pp. Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appeared in Sub-Saharan Africa by 1200 BC. •The optimum degree of metallurgical beneficiation is highly dependent on economic They built a cylindrical clay furnace and used charcoal and a hand-operated bellows to reach the level of heating for smelting. Role of women in the production of West African textiles such as adire, sanyan, adinkra and kente. The origins of iron smelting in Africa: A complex technology in Tanzania (Research paper in anthropology) [Schmidt, Peter R] on Amazon.com. The authors of this joint work, part of the 'Iron Roads in Africa' project, are distinguished archaeologists, historians, metallographic engineers, anthropologists and sociologists. It is iron, with a melting point too high for primitive furnaces to extract it in pure form from its ore. Perceptions of time and space in various parts of Africa… Great Zimbabwe is the largest of about 250 similarly dated mortarless stone structures in Africa, called collectively Zimbabwe Culture sites. Hamady Bocoum, ‘Iron Metallurgy in Africa: A Heritage and a Resource for Development’, in Hamady Bocoum (ed. 1. and 600 B.C., depending on the region, and followed the Stone Age and Bronze Age. Person, A & Quechon, G. (2004). This debate has since received new field and analytical data, which helped understanding the geological, technological and/or social factors involved in various cultural manifestations of emerging metallurgical activity (cf. A condensed discussion of African metallurgy is difficult because of the large size of the continent and the 3,000 years over which it developed south of the Sahara desert. Apparently, iron metallurgy has been known since ancient times to various tribes in Africa. Curiously, he suggests African iron metallurgy was developed in two places, northern Nigeria/Cameroon and the Great Lakes region, while ignoring Niger, source of the earliest available dates. Jones, published in their article "Metallurgical investigation of an iron plate found in 1837 in the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, Egypt" (Journal of Historical Metallurgy Society, Vol. Great Zimbabwe is a massive African Iron Age settlement and dry-stone monument located near the town of Masvingo in central Zimbabwe. A long Tradition of Mineralogy and Metallurgy among African Societies over thousands of Years. The concept of a single origin was challenged by Renfrew (1969) who argued for multiple inventions of metallurgy in independent centres throughout Eurasia. Prendergast, M. D. (1974) ‘Research into the Ferrous Metallurgy of Rhodesian Iron Age Societies’, Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 74: 254-264. The Egyptian Knowledge of Metallurgy and Metalworking . The idea of an independent discovery of metallurgy in Africa even in the face of pretty old evidence has always been pretty contentious. 6 Ehret, Christopher, The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800 (Charlottesville, 2002), 161. Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C. Furthermore, several metals were produced and used in Africa, and metal production involved many technological steps which were not necessarily used for each metal type (i.e., iron, copper, gold, and tin). ), The origins of iron metallurgy in Africa. In many communities, iron is so revered it has been given divine status. ), The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa. Food processing techniques and indigenous fermented beverages 19. Iron Extraction and Works of Blacksmiths among the Dogon till nowaday (Mali). 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New Homes Kettering Road, Stamford, Mandarin Port Erin Opening Times, Sw Chicken Soup, What Animals Have Blubber, Back-to-back Stem And Leaf Plot, Grilled Squid Heads Recipe, China China Amaro Substitute,

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